Vol 3, No 2 (2021): A Systematic Review on Oral Lichen Planus: Pathogenesis and its Treatment

Authors: Krishna Dhungana, Sunil Gupta, Daisy Arora

Abstract: Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) inflammatory condition that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, swollen tissues; or open sores. These lesions may cause burning, pain or other discomfort. Oral lichen planus can't be passed from one person to another. The disorder occurs when the immune system mounts an attack against cells of the oral mucous membranes for unknown reasons. Symptoms can usually be managed, but people who have oral lichen planus need regular monitoring because they may be at risk of developing mouth cancer in the affected areas. The white, lacy patches may not cause discomfort when they appear on the inside of the cheeks. However, symptoms accompanying red, swollen patches and open sores may include burning sensation or pain. Some factors may increase your risk of developing oral lichen planus, such as having a disorder that lowers your immunity or taking certain medications, though more research is needed. In the present review a brief pathophysiology and different treatment approaches are discussed in brief.

Keywords: Oral Lichen planus, immunity, open sores, corticosteroids, nutraceuticles.

Vol 3, No 1 (2021): Sports Medicine as a New Frontier for Ayurveda

Authors: Kavita Gupta, Mahima Sharma

Abstract: Ayurveda, an ancient Indian medical system, is one of the most important systems of alternative medicine. Due to its distinct unmatched concept, it is proven to be highly practical even in the current period of medicine. We can't find any field of current medicine that has explanations of sports medicine from two centuries ago, and the same is true of Ayurvedic literature. However, in this modern era of medicine, the discipline of medicine is becoming increasingly multidisciplinary by combining information from other professions. In contemporary medicine, the area of sports medicine has just recently evolved as a separate department. As a result, Ayurvedic practitioners began to use the term "sports medicine" and chose a number of traditional, time-tested formulas that were discovered to be acceptable for prescription for modern-day sports injuries. They also took many of the formulas and procedures used in many ancient martial arts schools and produced numerous contemporary medicaments based on them. This study tries to describe this new subject by mentioning historic formulations as well as current pharmaceuticals.

Vol 3, No 1 (2021): Formulations of Poly Herbal Gel based Hand Sanitizer

Authors: Sidat Parin S., Ashara S.Jeesha.,Varachia AyshaI., Vanshiya Shivangini K., Unagar Ajay H., Virani G.Smit.

Abstract: The primary mode of transmission of microbes and infections is through the hands. Hand hygiene is thus the most important measure for avoiding the transmission of harmful germs and preventing infections. Hand sanitizer kills hazardous microorganisms on the hands while also preventing scratching, irritation, and dermatitis. The main aim of this research work is to develop a polyherbal hand sanitizer that is both alcohol-based and alcohol-free. Various essential oils, water and IPA, extracts of Neem leaf (Azadiractaindica), Tulsi leaf Ocimum sanctum L.), Kesudo leaf, Orange peel, Pulp of Aloe, were components of the hand sanitizers instead of synthetic ingredients. All of the ingredients have antimicrobial properties and smoothing effects on the hands. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, viscosity, and foam stability were determined along with antibacterial activity of hand sanitizer on selected strains of microorganisms. The findings show that the formulations have strong appearance characteristics, and the sanitizer's overall characterization showed that the formulations have no unpleasant color or odor.

Keywords: Hand sanitizer, Hand hygiene, Essential oils, Plant extracts

Vol 3, No 1 (2021): Determinants Influencing the Relapse of SARS-Cov-2 Infections in COVID-19 Pandemic

Author: Arathi Radhakrishanan, Chanchal Srivastav, Chandresh Sharma, Chanderdeep Tandon, Rajpal Srivatsav

Abstract: The pandemic COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, has been responsible for millions of deaths, highest in world history in a year. Most countries have been affected by COVID-19 and this viral infection has become a serious threat to public health worldwide. There are many reports indicating the relapse of COVID-19. Millions of people have been infected and recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there are ambiguities regarding the immunity elicited by SARS-CoV-2. Numerous cases have been reported worldwide about the relapse and reoccurrence of the disease. This has led to the discussion regarding the immune response and immunity developed after infection. There are multiple factors responsible for the relapse of COVID-19. The relevance of relapse phenomenon cannot be underscored and the factors responsible should be monitored for successfully combating the disease. Hence, the focus should be to understand the relapse phenomenon and various factors responsible for this condition. SARS-CoV-2 is undergoing continuous mutational changes to adapt for higher pathogenicity and rapid transmission. Therefore, there is requisite to understand the relapse mechanism and the factors responsible of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, Immune response, Vaccine, Relapse infection.


Vol 3, No 1 (2021): Rosacea: Pathophysiology, Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Modalities

Authors: Varsha Sodhi, Raj Kumar Narang, Daisy Arora

Abstract: Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disease that affects the facial skin. Clinically, rosacea can be categorized into papulopustular, erythematotelangiectatic, ocular, and phymatous rosacea. However, the phenotypic presentations of rosacea are more heterogeneous. Although the pathophysiology of rosacea remains to be elucidated, immunologic alterations and neurovascular dysregulation are thought to have important roles in initiating and strengthening the clinical manifestations of rosacea. In this article, we presented the possible molecular mechanisms of rosacea based on recent laboratory and clinical studies. We have also described the genetic predisposition for rosacea along with its associated diseases, triggering factors, and suggested management options in detail based on the underlying molecular biology. Understanding the molecular pathomechanisms of rosacea will likely aid in better comprehending its complex pathogenesis.

Keywords: Rosacea; Inflammation; cutaneous disorder; Facial erythema; papules


Vol 2, No 2 (2020): A Review on Medication and Management of Liver Cirrhosis

Authors:-Yuvrajsinh Solanki, Preetu Shukla, Dr. U. M. Upadhyay

Abstract:-Cirrhosis is defined as the histological development of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands in response to chronic liver injury, which leads to portal hypertension and end stage liver diseases. Recent advances in the understanding of the natural history and pathophysiology of cirrhosis, and in treatment of its complications, have resulted in improved management, quality of life and life expectancy of patients. Liver transplantation remains the only curative options for selected group of patients, but pharmacological treatments that can halt progression to decomposed cirrhosis or even reverse cirrhosis are currently being developed. This review focuses on the history, causes, sign & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, and management of cirrhosis and new clinical and scientific developments.

Vol 2, No 2 (2020): Multi Particulate Drug Delivery System

Authors: Bhatt Kruti Nileshbhai1, Dr. Jitendra Patel2, Dr. U.M. Upadhyay

Abstract: Multiparticulate drug delivery system is increasing desire effect over single unit dosages forms because of their potential benefits. Multiparticulate systems provide predictable gastric emptying, no risk of dose dumping, flexible release pattern and increased bioavailability with less inter and Intra subject variability. The aim of this review is to provide the main multiparticulate pulsatile delivery system, for which the swelling and rupturing and changed permeability of the coating membrane is primarily involved in the control of release. Ulcerative colitis is the chronic relapsing multifactorial gastrointestinal inflammatory bowel disease, which is characterized by bloody diarrhea, bowel dysfunction, anaemia.  The main aim is to overcome ulcerative colitis is appropriate local targeting and drug-related side-effects. To overcome these problems, microparticulate systems seems to be a promising approach for controlled and sustained drug release after oral administration, with this drug delivery system increasing immense importance for the local targeting drug to the colon at a controlled and sustained rate.


Prior to the development of any system, due consideration must be given to the physiological changes that occur in the disease state that might affect the performance of such a system. In spite of such physiological constraints to drug delivery to the colon, several colon-targeted formulations have been successfully commercialized in US and European markets. Few of the commercialized products are listed in Table 1. Several reviews have been published reporting the research that has gone into the development of perorally delivered single unit colon targeted drug delivery systems (24-30). In general, four primary approaches have been proposed for colon targeted delivery, namely prodrugs, pH-dependent system, time-dependent systems and colonic microflora activated systems (27). A brief summary of some of the colon targeted formulations based on the above mentioned conventional approaches is given in Table 2. Single unit colon targeted drug delivery system may suffer from the disadvantage of unintentional disintegration of the formulation due to manufacturing deficiency or unusual gastric physiology that may lead to drastically compromised systemic drug bioavailability or loss of local therapeutic action in the colon. Recently, much emphasis is being laid on the development of multiparticulate dosage forms in comparison to single-unit systems because of their potential benefits like increased bioavailability, reduced risk of systemic toxicity, reduced risk of local irritation and predictable gastric emptying (31). Multiparticulate approaches tried for colonic delivery include includes formulations in the form of pellets, granules, microparticles and nanoparticles. The use of multiparticulate drug delivery systems in preference to single unit dosage forms for colon targeting purposes dates back to 1985 when Hardy and co-workers (32) showed that multiparticulate systems enabled the drug to reach the colon quickly and were retained in the ascending colon for a relatively long period of time. Because of their smaller particle size as compared to single unit dosage forms, these systems are capable of passing through the GI tract easily, leading to less inter-and intra-subject variability. Moreover, multiparticulate systems tend to be more uniformly dispersed in the GI tract and also ensure more uniform drug absorption (33-35).

Vol 2, No 2 (2020): A Comprehensive Literature Review of Coronavirus Pandemic: Therapeutic Options and Possible Lessons from SARS-CoV

Authors: P. S. Meher, Dr. J.R. Rao

Abstract: There are new public health emergencies debilitating the world with the spread of the coronavirus disease in 2019. This presents an inventive challenge to identify useful drugs for therapy. A new coronavirus was found in China, Wuhan city, in December 2019. A causative agent earlier termed COVID-19 by WHO. It affects the lower respiratory tract and explicit as pneumonia in humans. The disease is transferred by inhalation or in contact with infected surfaces. The evaluation and exposure to the pathogenic organism period of the virus is between 2 to 14 days. The common symptoms observed usually are cough, fever, fatigue and sore throat, among others. The number of people is asymptomatic. The present review includes in detail information of virus, its epidemiology, symptoms, diagnostic tests, prevention, some useful therapies and drugs which may be effective in treatment.

Vol 2, No 1 (2020): Challenges and Opportunities for Covid-19 Management: An Outbreak

Authors:-Ramandeep Saini, N.S. Gill1, Yash Prashar Manoj Kumar Katual, Gurfateh Singh,S. L. Harikumar


Abstract:-Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2(SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China, and has since spread globally, resulting in the 2019–20 corona virus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include muscle pain, sputum production, diarrhoea, sore throat, and loss of smell and taste. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of 25 March 2020, the overall rate of deaths per number of diagnosed cases is 4.5 percent, but it in fact ranges from 0.2 percent to 15 percent according to age group and other health problems. The virus is typically spread during close contact and via respiratory droplets produced when people cough or sneeze. Respiratory droplets may be produced during breathing but it is not considered airborne. It may also spread when one touches a contaminated surface and then their face. It is most contagious when people are symptomatic, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear. The virus can live on surfaces up to 72 hours. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between two and fourteen days, with an average of five days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Recommended measures to prevent infection include frequent hand washing, social distancing (maintaining physical distance from others, especially from those with symptoms), covering coughs and sneezes with a tissue or inner elbow, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of masks is recommended by some national health authorities for those who suspect they have the virus and their caregivers, but not for the general public, although simple cloth masks may be used by those who desire them. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment forCOVID-19. Management involves treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2019–20 corona virus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Local transmission of the disease has been recorded in many countries across all six WHO regions.


Vol 1, No 2 (2019): Dust and Allergy

Authors: Dr. S. Sreeremya

Abstract: Dust is a polluting agent which causes major pulmonary disorders which initially starts from coughing to chronic clinical conditions.  It can cause eye infections too. This paper discusses the mode of infections manifested by dust as allergen.


Vol 1, No 2 (2019): Influence of Acinetobacter in Coming Era

Authors: Dr. S. Sreeremya

Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii is the Gram-negative bacillus that is aerobic, pleomorphic and non-motile. An opportunistic pathogen, A. baumannii has the high incidence among immunocompromised individuals, particularly those who have experienced the prolonged (> 90 d) hospital stay. Commonly allied with aquatic environments, it has been shown to colonize the skin as well as being isolated in very high numbers from the respiratory and oropharynx secretions of infected individuals. So this paper discusses the various aspects of Acinetobacter baumannii

Vol 1, No 1 (2019): Contagious Disease in Camels: Jhooling

Authors:-Sreeremya .S

Abstract:-There are so many contagious diseases affecting in camels. There are several contagious infections like pox, staphylococcal infection, enteric infections etc. Jhooling is one among them. In this paper the pathogen city and disease which mostly affects the camels are discussed.

Vol 1, No 1 (2019): KISSING DISEASE (Infectious Mononucleosis)

Author: Sreeremya. S

Abstract: Infectious mononucleosis, or "mono" for short, is a viral illness that is common in teens and young adults. Although several viruses can cause mono, 92% of cases are caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). By middle adulthood, 95% of Americans have antibodies against EBV and thus have been infected at some point. This paper provides information regarding the clinical manifestation of Infectious mononucleosis (Kissing disease).

Vol 1, No 1 (2019): Molecular Aspects of Hammer Head Ribozyme Isolated From Virus& Its Influence on RNA Biology

Author: Sreeremya. S

Abstract: The field of RNA biology is now advancing sporadically. Hammer head ribozyme motif has a great role to play in RNA biology. This was first isolated from viruses. They are used o cleave other RNA molecules; can be vastly used in genetic manipulations. This paper garners the information regarding the functions, unique properties of Hammer head ribozymes.

Vol 1, No 1 (2019): Cauda Equina Syndrome Bowel Dysfunction

Authors:-S. Sreeremya

Abstract:-Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a chronic Complication of lumbar spinal disorders; it results from compression of the nerve roots of the cauda equina. The purpose of this work  was to assess the clinical usefulness of a classification scheme of CES based on certain factors including clinical symptoms, imaging signs, and electrophysiological findings.

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