Vol 2, No 1 (2021): A Comparative Evaluation of WiMAX, WAVE and LTE-V2V Vehicular Communication Technologies

Author: R. Sathish Kumar

Abstract: The continuously expanding traffic on the roadways is posing a threat to vehicle safety. It is a challenge to make roads safe and secure against traffic congestion and road accidents, which might occur when traffic density and vehicle speeds continue to climb. Vehicle communication technologies must be developed to offer a dependable and strong driver assist system for road transportation safety and efficiency. Vehicle communication technologies are being developed to identify dangerous situations early and share information among cars, which may then be utilised to issue driver warnings and/or navigational aids. In addition, non-safety vehicular network applications are being incorporated in automobiles for the purpose of entertainment and passenger comfort. We compare the performance of three technologies in this paper: WAVE, WiMAX, and LTE-V2V, with the goal of determining their respective strengths in a dynamic vehicular context. It is investigated how node density, node speed, and beacon transmission frequency affect throughput, latency, and packet delivery ratio. In terms of throughput and latency, numerical studies demonstrate that LTE-V2V outperforms the other two options.

Keywords: WAVE, WiMAX, LTE-V2V, Communication technology, Bandwidth

Vol 2, No 1 (2021): Simultaneous Identification and Surveying in an Autonomous Vehicle

Authors: Prashant Pawar, Harjinder Kaur

Abstract: Building a map and locating mobile robots is a basic and important issue in robotics research. This paper offers a detailed implementation of PyRobotics algorithms for SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) robots in a variety of environments. The study examines the basic notion and qualities of SLAM, as well as the features and classification of map representation without human intervention, locating itself using probability theory and the PyRobotics method. This paper discusses SLAM's most current developments, features, implementation, difficulties, and algorithms. Finally, utilising Python Integrated Development and Learning Environment (IDLE) and Robot Operating System (ROS) kinetic, these PyRobotics algorithms are implemented on the Hardware Setup.

Keywords: SLAM, PyRobotics algorithms, Unmanned vehicle, IDLE, ROS

Vol 2, No 1 (2021): An Innovative Approach to Develop an Unbounded Surveillance Robot for a Security System

Authors: Prachi Saxena, Chandandeep Singh

Abstract: The suggested surveillance robot prototype's main goal is to address the demand for an autonomous home security system that is not restricted to a specific place and can be accessed from anywhere in the world with a mobile network. Today's home security systems need a large number of pricey components as well as lengthy installation procedures. At the moment, the most common systems are cable systems. These cable systems have the drawback of being time consuming and costly to install. Another disadvantage is that the security system is permanently fixed in a portion of the house. The homeowner loses access to the security system if he leaves the house. As a result, we've considered creating a mobile, infinite-range wireless robot capable of regulating home security and having simple access to it from anywhere on the planet. The suggested solution should be designed to address the cabling infrastructure's shortcomings. The robots will be integrated into a system that will monitor the house for various harmful circumstances and respond to recordings via a web interface and an Android application.

Keywords: Robot, Security system, Arduino, DC motor, wireless robot

Vol 2, No 1 (2021): Cascode Amplifier Simulation and Performance Analysis in 90nm and 45nm Technology

Author: Momita Mukherjee

Abstract: The modelling of differential cascode amplifiers, two-stage cascode amplifiers, and folded cascode amplifiers at 90nm and 45nm, as well as a comparative review research with reported findings, are presented in this research. Cascode amplifiers improve speed by providing critical output impedance and reducing the effects of miller capacitance. The performance parameters are optimised in this study while keeping their tradeoffs in mind, and the effort attempts to increase bandwidth. The bandwidth is increased by reducing the output capacitance and increasing transconductance. The circuit is simulated in gpdk technology and using the cadence virtuoso tool. The differential cascode amplifiers perform well in terms of gain, whereas the folding cascode amplifiers have the best speed characteristics among the amplifiers simulated in this research. In terms of gain and frequency, the two-stage cascode amplifiers perform admirably. The improved differential cascode amplifier simulation in 45nm shows 36 dB gain, 15.8 MHz bandwidth, 300 MHz unity-gain bandwidth, and uses just 195nW of power. The two-stage cascode amplifier at 45nm has a gain of 24.8 dB, a bandwidth of 950 MHz, and a unity-gain bandwidth of 6.5 GHz, demonstrating the circuit's importance in high-frequency applications. The frequency response of the folded cascode amplifier in 45nm is 3 dB frequency of 4.9 GHz and UGB of 18GHz. The simulated folded cascode amplifier in 45 nm consumes an area of 2.65m x 2.65m(7.03 m2), indicating that its speed performance is superior to that of other simulated cascade amplifiers given in this study and those published in [1]. With a 1V power source, it uses 67W.

Keywords: CMOS technology, Cascode amplifiers, Transconductance, Bandwidth

Vol 2, No 1 (2021): Applications, Technologies and Importance of Electronics & Communication Engineering in the Current Pandemic

Authors: Shweta Mishra, Mohit Saxena, Karishma Bhatt

Abstract: The study gives a summary of the roles played by the field of electronics and communication throughout the global pandemic. The importance of electronics and communication in dealing with the current situation is astounding. It has become a vital part of our everyday lives during this difficult time, whether we are directly involved in a medical situation or just doing household chores. Because of the Electronics' assistance, the various sectors have been able to work properly.

Keywords: Electronics, Wireless communication, Pandemic situation, 5g connectivity



Vol 1, No 2 (2020): D2D Communication - An Assessment of the Transmission Capacity

Authors: Priya Dhama, Nishtha Rawal

Abstract: This research investigates the transmission capacity of vehicle relay aided networks coexisting with cellular networks. In both the underlay and overlay scenarios, the transmission capacity was investigated. Poison point processes based on stochastic geometry are used to describe vehicle-to-vehicle networks, cellular users, and relay nodes (RNs). The likelihood of RN existence and the relay link distance expectation are then computed in order to determine the successful transmission probabilities for V2V. In addition, the transmission capacity of V2V communication with relay nodes was determined in both underlay and overlay modes. Finally, simulation findings demonstrate that relay transmission improves V2V transmission capacity and is impacted by a variety of parameters such as V2V density, cellular user density, power, V2V connection distance, as well as the way RNs are used in V2V communications.

Keywords: - Spectrum scarcity, V2V communications, D2D communication, Transmission Capacity

Vol 1, No 2 (2020): An Overview of the Biological Consequences of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation

Author: Kushagr Jain

Abstract: Wireless communication is now widely used in our daily lives, and it has altered the essential aspects of human communications. Wireless communication has evolved into one of the most significant and practical aspects of today's communication network. The fast development of low-cost devices with increased connection, deployment and operation flexibility, and the ability to run more powerful applications and software in a tiny environment has resulted in a tremendous increase in the use of wireless communication. With the Internet of Things, M2M communications, and 5G mobile communication on the horizon, there is a massive increase in wireless Radio Frequency – Electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation exposure in our surroundings, which is rapidly increasing. Concerns about the impact of increased RF-EMF radiation on living or biological systems are also growing. Research findings that are contradictory and ambiguous are preventing a clear judgement on the true impact of RF-EM radiation on biological systems. This paper considers and evaluates the numerous studies on the effects of RF-EM radiation exposure based on in vitro, in vivo, epidemiological, and provocation investigations. The study compiles information from a variety of research and analyses in order to calculate the biological impacts of RF-EM radiation exposure. As a result of the inconsistency of the findings, interpretation is challenging. However, the focus is on identifying future research requirements in order to provide more consistent and conclusive results.

Keywords: -RF- EM radiation, M2M communication, Wireless communication, Non-thermal effect, SAR


Vol 1, No 2 (2020): A Microstrip Patch Antenna with Reconfigurable Frequency and Dumbbell-shaped slot for 5G Wireless Applications

Authors: R. Kishore, K. Gayatri, S. Jayesh

Abstract: Antennas with dynamic frequency modification capabilities are becoming increasingly popular. An antenna capable of dynamic frequency reconfiguration has been constructed and studied in the presented antenna structure. Two PIN diodes at various places make up the microstrip patch antenna. The frequency range is 24.33 GHz to 27.50 GHz. The given antenna is used in 5G NR mm Wave applications, and it provides extremely high data rates and capacity. The obtained return loss and VSWR values are within the acceptable range. ANSYS HFSS software was used to model the entire antenna gains.

Keywords: Antenna, 5g wireless communication, ANSYS HFSS software, Frequency


Vol 1, No 2 (2020): Linguistic and Blog-based Dataset for Real time Detection of Fake News

Authors: Megha Singh, Juhi Patel, Hemant Patil

Abstract: Fake News is made up of fake information that is designed to trick people into believing things that are not true. Due to the fact that spreading news is increasingly often done on the internet, it is difficult to spot fake news before it does any damage. Various datasets and algorithms have been utilised to distinguish between true and false news, which study was done to do. To identify if a piece of news is fake or authentic, we offer a comparison experiment with multiple classification algorithms and construct an effective machine learning model. These experiments utilise two types of datasets: blog-based (FB post) and linguistic-based news material. Thus, the process of constructing an efficient model with high accuracy, and finding out if news is accurate in different formats of news, are both involved. With the linguistic dataset, we get a rating of 97.5 percent, but using Facebook post-based dataset yields a rating of 75.5 percent.

Keywords: Blog-based dataset, Fake news, Real time detection, Reddit comment dataset

Vol 1, No 2 (2020): Two Wheeler Alcohol Detection, GPS Tracking, and Smart Messaging System

Authors: AA Patil, Kushal Jain

Abstract: We have applied latest developments in constructing Smart helmet systems and accident alarm systems in this article. In today's world, drinking and driving is the leading cause of traffic accidents. Drunk driving is determined to be responsible for more than 60% of all traffic accidents. Drinking and driving has consequences for not just the intoxicated driver, but also for others in the car with him or her, as well as for other persons and cars on the road. As a result, we are taking steps to prevent these mishaps. The research also aids us in comprehending how the smart helmet system and accident alert system have changed over time and are presently being implemented utilising technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT). A microcontroller STM32F103C8T6 and a SIM7000e module are used in the helmet (which is capable to get GPS locations). If an accident occurs, the car broadcasts our position to a predetermined phone number, which receives a prompt response.

Keywords: GPS tracker, Microcontroller, Smart helmet systems, Internet of Things (IoT)

Vol 1, No 1 (2020): Wireless Sensor Network Nodes for the Study of Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System

Authors: Sarvesh Garg, Sunny Dhama, Kalicharan Mahapatra

Abstract: A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) node is architecture of fewer sensors that are wirelessly connected to form a network that is used to capture essential data/information from difficult-to-reach locations. These WSN nodes wirelessly communicate the appropriate data in response to the inserted requests. Military surveillance, farms, buildings, institutions, dams, under the sea, high altitudes, and other applications are all common uses for these WSN nodes. Because some of these regions are difficult to approach and access, it is tough to manually change or recharge their batteries, reducing their lifespan and causing interruptions and unneeded delays in research. To address this issue, the concept of self-powered WSN nodes was developed. The self-powered WSN nodes recharge themselves utilising natural sources of energy that are freely available in the environment, with solar and thermal energy being the two most popular sources of energy. Some energy harvesting models/systems are addressed in this work, which utilise thermal and solar energy as the primary sources of energy for powering WSN nodes. By comparing several energy havesting models, several key results are drawn in this work.



Vol 1, No 1 (2020): Performance Analysis of the AODV Routing Protocol for Traffic with Variable Bit Rates

Authors: V. Shamkar, K. Seetharaman

Abstract: The topology of an ad hoc network must alter dynamically. AODV is a high-performance reactive efficiency protocol since no resources are required when no route is necessary. The study examines Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing, a popular on-demand routing technology, using QoS metrics such as average end-to-end latency, packet loss, throughput, and jitter in variable bit rate traffic. For varied node densities, graphical analysis is utilised to improve network performance under VBR load.

Vol 1, No 1 (2020): Windows-based System with H.264-Compliant for HD Video and Audio Transmission

Author: Mehak Agarwal

Abstract: The H.264 standard is the most modern and commonly used standard for designing video codecs. It was particularly beneficial in teleconferencing applications due to its improved compression and network friendliness. The goal of this study is to create a Windows programme that can do video communication. And we're working on the codec side of things. We used two different types of parallel processing to boost performance. Data parallelism and Thread-level parallelism are two types of parallelism. The first strategy was implemented using processor-specific SIMD instructions, whereas the second approach was implemented using the Windows thread libraries.

Vol 1, No 1 (2020): The Design of a Sub-aperture Antenna fed by an Integrated Waveguide to Support a WLAN

Authors: S. Rajasekhar, K. Gayathri

Abstract: An aperture linked microstrip patch antenna supplied by a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) has been devised for use in a wireless local area network (WLAN). The antenna's gain and radiation efficiency have both improved. When compared to a traditional aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna, the antenna's overall performance improves when fed by SIW. The radiation efficiency improves by around 46%.

Vol 1, No 1 (2020): Raspberry Pi with Internet of Things for the Modernization of Classroom

Authors: Aasha Sharma, Mudit Agarwal

Abstract: The Internet of Things is one of the concepts that have gained attraction in recent years. It entails connecting objects to the Internet so that information may be retrieved from them at any time and from any location. Sensor networks communicate information wirelessly in the Internet of Things, and our article shows how each classroom control may be accessible using Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information transmitted via radio frequency. In our technique, we first calculated the total number of devices in a classroom (e.g., a fan, a lamp, and so on). The smart classroom system we designed employs a variety of sensors, including a DHT11 temperature and humidity sensor for measuring the environment's temperature and humidity, an LDR sensor module for measuring light intensity using a light dependent resistor, and an Ultrasonic distance sensor for counting the number of students at the classroom door by measuring object distance using ultrasonic sound. These sensors are connected to a Raspberry Pi 3 through Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Ethernet, and data from the sensors is transferred to the Ubidots IoT cloud platform through the MQTT/HTTP application protocol. Python, a high-level programming language, is used to get data from the cloud and create the control logic for managing the appliances in the classroom. Finally, events from the cloud can be used to activate the on-board controller's outputs, such as sending an email to a specific email address. As a result, our solution will improve the classroom above the already available classrooms.


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